Costitution and Statute of the FTT TRIESTE
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Statuto

del TLT

Constitution and Statute of the Ftt - Free Territory of Trieste

Area

Integrità e indipendenza

Demilitarizzazione e neutralità

Diritti umani e libertà fondamentali

Diritti politici e civili

Cittadinanza

Lingue ufficiali

Bandiera e stemma

Organi di Governo

Costituzione

Scelta del Governatore

Autorità legislativa

Consiglio di Governo

Esercizio della potestà legislativa

Libertà e indipendenza della Magistratura

Scelta della Magistratura

Responsabilità del Governatore verso il Consiglio di Sicurezza

Diritti dell'Assemblea popolare

Iniziativa legislativa

Diritti del Governatore rispetto alle misure amministrative

Bilancio del Tlt

Poteri speciali del Governatore

Poteri di indulto e grazia

Relazioni con l'estero

Indipendenza del Governatore e membri del Governo

Scelta e rimozione degli ufficiali amministrativi

Direttore della pubblica sicurezza

Forze di polizia

Governo locale

Sistema monetario

Ferrovie del Tlt

Aviazione commerciale

Registro navale del Tlt

Porto Franco

Libertà di transito

Interpretazione dello Statuto

Emendamenti allo Statuto

Entrata in vigore dello Statuto

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 PERMANENT STATUTE

OF THE 

FREE TERRITORY OF TRIESTE

 

Article 1

 

Area of Free Territory

The area of the Free Territory of Trieste shall be the territory within the frontiers described in Articles 4 and 22 of the present Treaty as delimited in accordance with Article 5 of the Treaty.

 

 

Article 2

Integrity and independence

 

The integrity and independence of the Free Territory shall be assured by the Security Council of the United Nations Organization. This responsibility implies that the Council shall:

 

(a) ensure the observance of the present Statute and in particular the protection of the basic human rights of the inhabitants.

 

(b) ensure the maintenance of public order and security in the Free Territory.

 

 

Article 3

Demilitarisation and neutrality

 

1. The Free Territory shall be demilitarised and declared neutral.

 

2. No armed forces, except upon direction of the Security Council, shall be allowed in the Free Territory.

 

3. No para-military formations, exercises or activities shall be permitted within the Free Territory.

 

4. The Government of the Free Territory shall not make or discuss any military arrangements or undertakings with any State.

 

 

Article 4

Human rights and fundamental freedoms

 

The Constitution of the Free Territory shall ensure to all persons under the jurisdiction of the Free Territory, without distinction as to ethnic origin, sex, language or religion, the enjoyment of human rights and of the fundamental freedoms, including freedom of religious worship, language, speech and publication, education, assembly and association. Citizens of the Free Territory shall be assured of equality of eligibility for public office.

 

 

Article 5

Civil and political rights

 

No person who has acquired the citizenship of the Free Territory shall he deprived of his civil or political rights except as judicial punishment for the infraction of the penal laws of the Free Territory.

 

 

Article 6

Citizenship

 

1. Italian citizens who were domiciled on 10 June 1940 in the area comprised within the boundaries of the Free Territory, and their children born after that date, shall become original citizens of the Free Territory with full civil and political rights. Upon becoming citizens of the Free Territory they shall lose their Italian citizenship.

 

2. The Government of the Free Territory shall, however, provide that the persons referred to in paragraph 1 over the age of eighteen years (or married persons whether under or over that age) whose customary language is Italian shall be entitled to opt for Italian citizenship within six months from the coming into force of the Constitution under conditions to be laid down therein. Any person so opting shall be considered to have re-acquired Italian citizenship. The option of the husband shall not constitute an option on the part of the wife. Option on the part of the father, or if the father is not alive, on the part of the mother, shall, however, automatically include all unmarried children under the age of eighteen years.

 

3. The Free Territory may require those who take advantage of the option to move to Italy within a year from the date on which the option was exercised.

 

4. The conditions for the acquisition of citizenship by persons not qualifying for original citizenship shall be determined by the Constituent Assembly of the Free Territory and embodied in the Constitution. Such conditions shall, however, exclude the acquisition of citizenship by members of the former Italian Fascist Police (OVRA) who have not been exonerated by the competent authorities, including the Allied Military Authorities who were responsible for the administration of the area.

 

 

Article 7

Official languages

 

The official languages of the Free Territory shall be Italian and Slovene. The Constitution shall determine in what circumstances Croat may be used as a third official language.

 

 

Article 8

Flag and coat-of-arms

 

The Free Territory shall have its own flag and coat-of-arms. The flag shall be the traditional flag of the City of Trieste and the arms shall be its historic coat-of-arms.

 

 

Article 9

Organs of government

 

For the government of the Free Territory there shall be a Governor, a Council of Government, a popular Assembly elected by the people of the Free Territory and a Judiciary, whose respective powers shall be exercised in accordance with the provisions of the present Statute and of the Constitution of the Free Territory.

 

 

Article 10

Constitution

 

1. The Constitution of the Free Territory shall be established in accordance with democratic principles and adopted by a Constituent Assembly with a two-thirds majority of the votes cast. The Constitution shall be made to conform to the provisions of the present Statute and shall not enter into force prior to the coming into force of the Statute.

 

2. If in the opinion of the Governor any provisions of the Constitution proposed by the Constituent Assembly or any subsequent amendments thereto are in contradiction to the Statute he may prevent their entry into force, subject to reference to the Security Council if the Assembly does not accept his views and recommendations.

 

 

Article 11

Appointment of the Governor

 

1. The Governor shall be appointed by the Security Council after consultation with the Governments of Yugoslavia and Italy. He shall not be a citizen of Yugoslavia or Italy or of the Free Territory. He shall be appointed for five years and may be reappointed. His salary and allowances shall be borne by the United Nations.

 

2. The Governor may authorize a person selected by him to act for him in the event of his temporary absence or temporary inability to perform his duties.

 

3. The Security Council, if it considers that the Governor has failed to carry out his duties, may suspend him and, under appropriate safeguards of investigation and hearing, dismiss him from his office. In the event of his suspension or dismissal or in the event of his death or disability the Security Council may designate or appoint another person to act as Provisional Governor until the Governor recovers from his disability or a new Governor is appointed.

 

 

Article 12

Legislative authority

 

The legislative authority shall be exercised by a popular Assembly consisting of a single chamber elected on the basis of proportional representation, by the citizens of both sexes of the Free Territory. The elections for the Assembly shall be conducted on the basis of universal, equal, direct and secret suffrage.

 

 

Article 13

Council of Government

 

1. Subject to the responsibilities vested in the Governor under the present Statute, executive authority in the Free Territory shall be exercised by a Council of Government which will be formed by the popular Assembly and will be responsible to the Assembly.

 

2. The Governor shall have the right to be present at all meetings of the Council of Government. He may express his views on all questions affecting his responsibilities.

 

3. When matters affecting their responsibilities are discussed by the Council of Government, the Director of Public Security and the Director of the Free Port shall be invited to attend meetings of the Council and to express their views.

 

 

Article 14

Exercise of judicial authority

 

The judicial authority in the Free Territory shall be exercised by tribunals established pursuant to the Constitution and laws of the Free Territory.

 

 

Article 15

Freedom and independence of judiciary

 

The Constitution of the Free Territory shall guarantee the complete freedom and independence of the Judiciary and shall provide for appellate jurisdiction.

 

 

Article 16

Appointment of Judiciary

 

1. The Governor shall appoint the Judiciary from among candidates proposed by the Council of Government or from among other persons, after consultation with the Council of Government, unless the Constitution provides for a different manner for filling judicial posts; and, subject to safeguards to be established by the Constitution, may remove members of the Judiciary for conduct incompatible with their judicial office.

 

2. The popular Assembly, by a two-thirds majority of votes cast, may request the Governor to investigate any charge brought against a member of the Judiciary which, if proved, would warrant his suspension or removal.

 

 

Article 17

Responsibility of the Governor to the Security Council

 

1. The Governor, as the representative of the Security Council, shall be responsible for supervising the observance of the present Statute including the protection of the basic human rights of the inhabitants and for ensuring that public order and security are maintained by the Government of the Free Territory in accordance with the present Statute, the Constitution and laws of the Free Territory.

 

2. The Governor shall present to the Security Council annual reports concerning the operation of the Statute and the performance of his duties.

 

 

Article 18

Rights of the Assembly

 

The popular Assembly shall have the right to consider and discuss any matters affecting the interests of the Free Territory.

 

 

Article 19

Enactment of legislation

 

1. Legislation may be initiated by members of the popular Assembly and by the Council of Government as well as by the Governor in matters which in his view affect the responsibilities of the Security Council as defined in Article 2 of the present Statute.

 

2. No law shall enter into force until it shall have been promulgated. The promulgation of laws shall take place in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution of the Free Territory.

 

3. Before being promulgated legislation enacted by the Assembly shall be presented to the Governor.

 

4. If the Governor considers that such legislation is in contradiction to the present Statute, he may, within ten days following presentation of such legislation to him, return it to the Assembly with his comments and recommendations. If the Governor does not return the legislation within such ten days or if he advises the Assembly within such period that it calls for no comments or recommendation on his part, the legislation shall be promulgated forthwith.

 

5. If the Assembly makes manifest its refusal to withdraw legislation returned to the Assembly by the Governor or to amend it in conformity with his comments or recommendations, the Governor shall, unless he is prepared to withdraw his comments or recommendations, in which case the law shall be promulgated forthwith, immediately report the matter to the Security Council. The Governor shall likewise transmit without delay to the Security Council any communication which the Assembly may wish to make to the Council on the matter.

 

6. Legislation which forms the subject of a report to the Security Council under the provisions of the preceding paragraph shall only be promulgated by the direction of the Security Council.

 

 

Article 20

Rights of the Governor with respect to administrative measures

 

1. The Governor may require the Council of Government to suspend administrative measures which in his view conflict with his responsibilities as defined in the present Statute (observance of the Statute; maintenance of public order and security; respect for human rights). Should the Council of Government object, the Governor may suspend these administrative measures and the Governor or the Council of Government may refer the whole question to the Security Council for decision.

 

2. In matters affecting his responsibilities as defined in the Statute the Governor may propose to the Council of Government the adoption of any administrative measures. Should the Council of Government not accept such proposals the Governor may, without prejudice to Article 22 of the present Statute, refer the matter to the Security Council for decision.

 

 

Article 21

Budget

 

1. The Council of Government shall be responsible for the preparation of the budget of the Free Territory, including both revenue and expenditure, and for its submission to the popular Assembly.

 

2. If the Assembly should fail to vote the budget within the proper time limit, the provisions of the budget for the preceding period shall be applied to the new budgetary period until such time as the new budget shall have been voted.

 

 

Article 22

Special powers of the Governor

 

1. In order that he may carry out his responsibilities to the Security Council under the present Statute, the Governor may, in cases which in his opinion permit of no delay, threatening the independence or integrity of the Free Territory, public order or respect of human rights, directly order and require the execution of appropriate measures subject to an immediate report thereon being made by him to the Security Council. In such circumstances the Governor may himself assume, if he deems it necessary, control of the security services.

 

2. The popular Assembly may petition the Security Council concerning any exercise by the Governor of his powers under paragraph 1 of this Article.

 

 

Article 23

Power of pardon and reprieve

 

The power of pardon and reprieve shall be vested in the Governor and shall be exercised by him in accordance with provisions to be laid down in the Constitution.

 

 

Article 24

Foreign relations

 

1. The Governor shall ensure that the foreign relations of the Free Territory shall be conducted in conformity with the Statute, Constitution, and laws of the Free Territory. To this end the Governor shall have authority to prevent the entry into force of treaties or agreements affecting foreign relations which, in his judgment, conflict with the Statute, Constitution or laws of the Free Territory.

 

2. Treaties and agreements, as well as exequaturs and consular commissions, shall be signed jointly by the Governor and a representative of the Council of Government.

 

3. The Free Territory may be or become a party to international conventions or become a member of international organizations provided the aim of such conventions or organizations is to settle economic, technical, cultural, social or health questions.

 

4. Economic union or associations of an exclusive character with any State are incompatible with the status of the Free Territory.

 

5. The Free Territory of Trieste shall recognize the full force of the Treaty of Peace with Italy, and shall give effect to the applicable provisions of that Treaty. The Free Territory shall also recognize the full force of the other agreements or arrangements which have been or will be reached by the Allied and Associated Powers for the restoration of peace.

 

 

Article 25

Independence of the Governor and staff

 

In the performance of their duties, the Governor and his staff shall not seek or receive instructions from any Government or from any other authority except the Security Council. They shall refrain from any act which might reflect on their position as international officials responsible only to the Security Council.

 

 

Article 26

Appointment and removal of administrative officials

 

1. Appointments to public office in the Free Territory shall be made exclusively on the ground of ability, competence and integrity.

 

2. Administrative officials shall not be removed from office except for incompetence or misconduct and such removal shall be subject to appropriate safeguards of investigation and hearing to be established by law.

 

 

Article 27

Director of Public Security

 

1. The Council of Government shall submit to the Governor a list of candidates for the post of Director of Public Security. The Governor shall appoint the Director from among the candidates presented to him, or from among other persons, after consultation with the Council of Government. He may also dismiss the Director of Public Security after consultation with the Council of Government.

 

2. The Director of Public Security shall not be a citizen of Yugoslavia or Italy.

 

3. The Director of Public Security shall normally be under the immediate authority of the Council of Government from which he will receive instructions on matters within his competence.

 

4. The Governor shall:

 

(a) receive regular reports from the Director of Public Security, and consult with him on any matters coming within the competence of the Director.

 

(b) be informed by the Council of Government of its instructions to the Director of Public Security and may express his opinion thereon.

 

 

Article 28

 

Police force

 

1. In order to preserve public order and security in accordance with the Statute, the Constitution and the laws of the Free Territory, the Government of the Free Territory shall be empowered to maintain a police force and security services.

 

2. Members of the police force and security services shall be recruited by the Director of Public Security and shall be subject to dismissal by him.

 

 

Article 29

Local government

 

The Constitution of the Free Territory shall provide for the establishment on the basis of proportional representation of organs of local government on democratic principles, including universal, equal, direct and secret suffrage.

 

 

Article 30

Monetary system

 

The Free Territory shall have its own monetary system.

 

 

Article 31

Railways

 

Without prejudice to its proprietary rights over the railways within its boundaries and its control of the railway administration, the Free Territory may negotiate with Yugoslavia and Italy agreements for the purpose of ensuring the efficient and economical operation of its railways. Such agreements would determine where responsibility lies for the operation of the railways in the direction of Yugoslavia or Italy respectively and also for the operation of the railway terminal of Trieste and of that part of the line which is common to all. In the latter case such operation may be effected by a special commission comprised of representatives of the Free Territory, Yugoslavia and Italy under the chairmanship of the representative of the Free Territory.

 

 

Article 32

Commercial aviation

 

1. Commercial aircraft registered in the territory of any one of the United Nations which grants on its territory the same rights to commercial aircraft registered in the Free Territory, shall be granted international commercial aviation rights, including the right to land for refueling and repairs, to fly over the Free Territory without landing and to use for traffic purposes such airports as may be designated by the competent authorities of the Free Territory.

 

2. These rights shall not be subject to any restrictions other than those imposed on a basis of non-discrimination by the laws and regulations in force in the Free Territory and in the countries concerned or resulting from the special character of the Free Territory as neutral and demilitarized.

 

 

Article 33

Registration of vessels

 

1. The Free Territory is entitled to open registers for the registration of ships and vessels owned by the Government of the Free Territory or by persons or organisations domiciled within the Free Territory.

 

2. The Free Territory shall open special maritime registers for Czechoslovak and Swiss ships and vessels upon request of these Governments, as well as for Hungarian and Austrian ships and vessels upon the request of these Governments after the conclusion of the Treaty of Peace with Hungary and the treaty for the re-establishment of the independence of Austria respectively. Ships and vessels entered in these registers shall fly the flags of their respective countries.

 

3. In giving effect to the foregoing provisions, and subject to any international convention which may be entered into concerning these questions, with the participation of the Government of the Free Territory, the latter shall be entitled to impose such conditions governing the registration, retention on and removal from the registers as shall prevent any abuses arising from the facilities thus granted. In particular as regards ships and vessels registered under paragraph 1 above, registration shall be limited to ships and vessels controlled from the Free Territory and regularly serving the needs or the interests of the Free Territory. In the case of ships and vessels registered under paragraph 2 above, registration shall be limited to ships and vessels based on the Port of Trieste and regularly and permanently serving the needs of their respective countries through the Port of Trieste.

 

 

Article 34

Free port

 

A free port shall be established in the Free Territory and shall be administered on the basis of the provisions of an international instrument drawn up by the Council of Foreign Ministers, approved by the Security Council, and annexed to the present Treaty (Annex VIII). The Government of the Free Territory shall enact all necessary legislation and take all necessary steps to give effect to the provisions of such instrument.

 

 

Article 35

Freedom of transit

 

Freedom of transit shall, in accordance with customary international agreements, be assured by the Free Territory and the States whose territories are traversed to goods transported by railroad between the Free Port and the States which it serves, without any discrimination and without customs duties or charges other than those levied for services rendered.

 

 

Article 36

Interpretation of Statute

 

Except where another procedure is specifically provided under any Article of the present Statute, any dispute relating to the interpretation or execution of the Statute, not resolved by direct negotiations, shall, unless the parties mutually agree upon another means of settlement, be referred at the request of either party to the dispute to a Commission composed of one representative of each party and a third member selected by mutual agreement of the two parties from nationals of a third country. Should the two parties fail to agree within a period of one month upon the appointment of the third member, the Secretary-General of the United Nations may be requested by either party to make the appointment. The decision of the majority of the members of the Commission shall be the decision of the Commission, and shall be accepted by the parties as definitive and binding.

 

 

Article 37

Amendment of Statute

 

This Statute shall constitute the permanent Statute of the Free Territory, subject to any amendment which may hereafter be made by the Security Council. Petitions for the amendment of the Statute may be presented to the Security Council by the popular Assembly upon a vote taken by a two-thirds majority of the votes cast.

 

 

Article 38

Coming into force of Statute

 

The present Statute shall come into force on a date which shall be determined by the Security Council of the United Nations Organisation.

 

 

TREATY OF PEACE 

Constitution 

of the Ftt-Tlt

Paris, 10 February 1947

 

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States of America, China, France, Australia, Belgium, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Brazil, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia, Greece, India, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, the Union of South Africa, and the People's Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, hereinafter referred to as "the Allied and Associated Powers", of the one part, and Italy, of the other part:

 

HAVE THEREFORE AGREED to declare the cessation of the state of war and for this purpose to conclude the present Treaty of Peace, and have accordingly appointed the undersigned Plenipotentiaries who, after presentation of their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed on the following provisions:

 

 

(...) 

 

Article 21

 

1. There is hereby constituted the Free Territory of Trieste, consisting of the area lying between the Adriatic Sea and the boundaries defined in Articles 4 and 22 of the present Treaty. The Free Territory of Trieste is recognized by the Allied and Associated Powers and by Italy, which agree that its integrity and independence shall be assured by the Security Council of the United Nations.

 

2. Italian sovereignty over the area constituting the Free Territory of Trieste, as above defined, shall be terminated upon the coming into force of the present Treaty.

 

3. On the termination of Italian sovereignty, the Free Territory of Trieste shall be governed in accordance with an instrument for a provisional régime drafted by the Council of Foreign Ministers and approved by the Security Council. This Instrument shall remain in force until such date as the Security Council shall fix for the coming into force of the Permanent Statute which shall have been approved by it. The Free Territory shall thenceforth be governed by the provisions of such Permanent Statute. The texts of the Permanent Statute and of the Instrument for the Provisional Regime are contained in Annexes VI and VII.

 

4. The Free Territory of Trieste shall not be considered as ceded territory within the meaning of Article 19 and Annex XIV of the present Treaty.

 

5. Italy and Yugoslavia undertake to give to the Free Territory of Trieste the guarantees set out in Annex IX.

 

(Article 4) - The frontier between Italy and the Free Territory of Trieste shall be fixed as follows:

 

(i) The line starts from a point on the administrative boundary between the provinces of Gorizia and Trieste approximately 2 kilometres northeast of the village of San Giovanni and approximately 0.5 kilometre northwest of point 208, forming the junction of the frontiers of Yugoslavia, Italy and the Free Territory of Trieste, and runs southwestward to a point adjacent to Highway No. 14 and approximately 1 kilometre northwest of the junction between Highways Nos. 55 and 14, respectively running from Gorizia and Monfalcone to Trieste;

 

(ii) The line then extends in a southerly direction to a point, in the Gulf of Panzano, equidistant from Punta Sdobba at the mouth of the Isonzo (Soca) river and Castello Vecchio at Duino, about 3.3 kilometres south from the point where it departs from the coastline approximately 2 kilometres northwest of the town of Duino;

 

(iii) The line then reaches the high seas by following a line placed equidistant from the coastlines of Italy and the Free Territory of Trieste.

 

(Article 22 ) - The frontier between Yugoslavia and the Free Territory of Trieste shall be fixed as follows:

 

(i) The line starts from a point on the administrative boundary between the provinces of Gorizia and Trieste, approximately 2 kilometres northeast of the village of San Giovanni and approximately 0.5 kilometre northwest of point 208, forming the junction of the frontiers of Yugoslavia, Italy and the Free Territory of Trieste, and follows this administrative boundary as far as Monte Lanaro (point 546); thence it extends southeastward as far as Monte Cocusso (point 672) through point 461, Meducia (point 475), Monte dei Pini (point 476) and point 407, crossing Highway No. 58, from Trieste to Sesana, about 3.3 kilometres to the southwest of this town, and leaving the villages of Vogliano and Orle to the east, and at approximately 0.4 kilometre to the west, the village of Zolla.

 

(ii) From Monte Cocusso, the line, continuing southeastward leaving the village of Grozzana to the west, reaches Monte Goli (point 621), then turning southwestward, crosses the road from Trieste to Cosina at point 455 and the railway at point 485, passes by points 416 and 326, leaving the villages of Beco and Castel in Yugoslav territory, crosses the road from Ospo to Gabrovizza d'Istria about 100 metres to the southeast of Ospo; then crosses the river Risana and the road from Villa Decani to Risano at a point about 350 metres west of the latter village, the village of Rosario and the road from Risano to San Sergio being left in Yugoslav territory; from this point the line proceeds as far as the cross roads situated about 1 kilometre northeastward of point 362, passing by points 285 and 354.

 

(iii) Thence, the line runs as far as a point about 0.5 kilometre east of the village of Cernova, crossing the river Dragogna about 1 kilometre north of this village, leaving the villages of Bucciai and Truscolo to the west and the village of Tersecco to the east, it then runs southwestward to the southeast of the road connecting the villages of Cernova and Chervoi, leaving this road 0.8 kilometre to the east of the village of Cucciani; it then runs in a general south-southwesterly direction, passing about 0.4 kilometre east of Monte Braico and at about 0.4 kilometre west of the village of Sterna Filaria, leaving the road running from this village to Piemonte to the east, passing about 0.4 kilometre west of the town of Piemonte and about 0.5 kilometre east of the town of Castagna and reaching the river Quieto at a point approximately 1.6 kilometre southwest of the town of Castagna.

 

(iv) Thence the line follows the main improved channel of the Quieto to its mouth, passing through Porto del Quieto to the high seas by following a line placed equidistant from the coastlines of the Free Territory of Trieste and Yugoslavia.

 

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