FTT FREE TERRITORY OF TRIESTE
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FTT - TLT

>> Trieste 1945/46/47

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MOMIANO

CITTANOVA

DAILA

VERTENEGLIO

 

CAPODISTRIA

 

TRIESTE

 



MUGGIA

 

 

GRISIGNANA

 

DUINO

 

PIRANO

 






THE 16 MUNICIPALITIES of THE FREE TERRITORY of TRIESTE

 

    - DUINO

    - MUGGIA

    - TRIESTE

    - CAPODISTRIA

    - ISOLA

    - PIRANO

    - UMAGO

    - GRISIGNANA

    - CITTANOVA

    - VERTENEGLIO

    - BUIE

   - SGONICO / ZGONIK

   - MONRUPINO / REPENTABOR

   - MARESEGO / MAREZIGE

   -MONTE DI CAPODISTRIA /  SMARIJE

  - SAN DORLIGO DELLA VALLE / DOLINA

   - VILLA DE'CANI / DEKANI

 
 

The Weather
in TRIESTE now

 

 

 

 
 
 
  

Il Territorio Libero di Trieste 

 

 

Il TLT confina a nordovest con la Repubblica Italiana, a est con la Repubblica Popolare di Jugoslavia, e ad ovest con il mare Adriatico.
 
Fiumi: Timavo, Rosandra, Risano, Quieto
Massima elevazione: Monte Castellaro 742 m.s.l.m.
 
Clima: marittimo mediterraneo sulla costa, temperato continentale all'interno.
 
Limite Nord: Dosso Giulio 45.5 N
Limite Sud: Porto Quieto 45.2 N
Limite Ovest: Punta Salvore 13.0 E
Limite Est: Grozzana di Pese 13.2 E

 

 

 
Data Costituzione 10.2.1947
 
Superficie: 741 Kmq.
 
Comuni: Duino, Aurisina, Monrupino, Sgonico, Trieste, Muggia, San Dorligo, Capodistria, Maresego, Monte di Capodistria, Villa Decani, Isola, Pirano, Buie, Cittanova, Umago, Verteneglio, Grisignana.
 
Popolazione: 330.000 ab. ---- 
278.000 Italiani, 35.000 sloveni, 13.000 croati, 4.000 tedeschi, altre etnie.
 
Densità : 444 ab/kmq.
 
 
Distribuzione etnica

Fonte: Karty etniceskoj struktury Juliskoy krajny 1946:
Italiani 84% 
Slavi 15%
Altri 1%
278.000 Italiani, 35.000 sloveni, 13.000 croati, 4.000 tedeschi ed altre etnie.
Si parla italiano (un dialetto di tipo veneto) nella capitale Trieste, nei  centri lungo la costa dal Timavo al Quieto, e nei loro dintorni  (Duino,Grignano,Trieste, Muggia, Capodistria, Isola, Pirano, Portorose, Sta.Lucia, Salvore, Umago, Daila, Cittanova),  nei   maggiori  centri dell'interno (Grisignano, Momiano, Castelvenere, Buie, Verteneglio) nonché nelle campagne del Muggesano, Capodistriano, Piranese e Isolano e  in quelle del  Buiese ed Umaghese.
 
I 35.000 Sloveni abitano l' altipiano del Carso da San Giovanni di Duino (Stivan) a nord, a Monte di Capodistria (Smarje) a sud, nonché, misti agli italiani,  le campagne e alcuni dei sobborghi retrostanti Trieste (Barcola, San Giovanni e Servola) nonchè la zona sopra Muggia (Crevatini, Albaro Vescovà) e intorno Capodistria (S.Antonio, Villa Decani). 
Tutti parlano correntemente anche l'italiano. 
In zona A ricadono 28.000 sloveni, in zona B  solo 7.000.
I 13.000 Croati  abitano, misti agli italiani,  le campagne della zona meridionale del Territorio, e costituiscono la  maggioranza   nelle campagne più distanti dalla costa (intorno a Toppolo in Belvedere/Topolovec). Tutti parlano correntemente anche l'italiano. Risiedono tutti in zona B.
I 4.000 abitanti tedeschi e di altre etnie sono principalmente concentrati a Trieste( zona A). Tutti parlano correntemente anche l'italiano.
 
Dei 18 singoli municipi, 7 piccoli comuni sono, nel 1947, a maggioranza slovena: in zona A Nabrezina (Aurisina), Zgonik (Sgonico), Repentabor (Monrupino), Dolina ( Sant'Ulderico)  e in zona B Marezega ( Maresego), Dekani (VIlla Decani) e Smarje (Monte di Capodistria) 
Gli altri 11  comuni , sono a maggioranza italiana: 3 in zona A ( Duino, Muggia, Trieste ) ed  8 in zona B ( Capodistria, Isola, Pirano, Umago, Cittanova, Buie, Verteneglio, Grisignana ).
 
Nella parte settentrionale del TLT, e in genere in tutti i centri urbani, tra Italiani e slavi la distinzione nazionale è netta. La coscienza nazionale è chiaramente delineata, i fattori linguistici, culturali e sentimentali, di regola, non si prestano ad equivoci.
Scendendo nelle campagne a mezzogiorno della Dragogna, quando si entra in quella parte della campagna istriana che è divisa fra Italiani e Croati,  le questioni nazionali  cominciano a perdere parte della loro nettezza : una massa non indifferente nelle zone rurali, che statisticamente considereremo croata,  è formata da elementi incerti bilingui,  parlanti un dialetto ibrido italo-slavo (schiavetto) misto tra  veneto,  sloveno e croato.
A questo proposito bisogna tener presente che le lingue slave della regione non hanno una diffusione extra-nazionale e non offrono ancora risorse culturali tali da invogliare gli elementi italiani ad apprenderle. Di regola gli Italiani ignorano la lingua dei loro vicini, mentre gli Slavi della regione sono bilingui da secoli.
 
Composizione etnica dei principali centri urbani ( esclusi sobborghi e circondari) secondo l'I.R. Censimento per lingua d'uso.
 
Trieste: 91,2% It. - 4,7% Ted. - 3,8% Sl.
Muggia : 97,9% It. -1,9% Sl. - 0,2% Ted.
Capodistria :  89,7% It. - 4,8% Ted. - 1,9% Sl.
Isola  : 99,4 % It. - 0,6% Sl. 
Salvore 80% It. 20% Cr.
Pirano : 99,8 % It. - 0,2% Ted. - 
Castelvenere: 65,3% It. 34,7 % Cr.
 
 
 
 
 
Bandiera : Corsaresca (Alabarda) bianca in campo rosso
 
Sigla automobilistica internazionale : TLT
 
Ferrovie  AAFTLT    AZIENDA AUTONOMA DELLE FERROVIE DEL TLT ( il 19 settembre 1947 è avvenuto il passaggio gestione da FS italiane  alla  AAFTLT )
LINEE: Italia- Confine- Duino-Trieste C.le.
Villa Opicina-Aurisina-Barcola-Trieste C.le.
Jugoslavia-Confine-Op. Campagna-Guardiella-Trieste   St.Andrea. 
Trieste St.Andrea-Servola-Aquilinia.
Trieste St.Andrea-Sant'Anna-St.Elia-Pirano-Santa Lucia di Portorose-Buie (in esercizio fino St.Elia).
 
POSTE: nella zona A l'Amministrazione postale utilizza  francobolli italiani sovrastampati con la dicitura AMG FTT, nella zona B l'Amministrazione jugoslava utilizza propri francobolli trilingui.

 

 
IL MONOPOLIO DI STATO DEL TERRITORIO LIBERO DI TRIESTE si occupa della distribuzione del tabacco e sigarette, a prezzi del 18 % inferiori a quelli italiani.
La pressione fiscale è del 20 % inferiore a quella in Italia alla stessa epoca.
RADIO : vengono trasmessi un programma in italiano (Radio Trieste) e uno sloveno  (Radio Trst A). Per la zona B trasmette un programma in italiano 
Forze militari.
Nelle due zone, come previsto dallo Statuto, non vige l'obbligo di servizio militare. (In zona B però gli jugoslavi hanno introdotto il lavoro obbligatorio paramilitarizzato)
La Polizia civile VGPF conta 4337 effettivi militari e 5301 impiegati
La Guardia di Finanza del TLT conta 1044 effettivi militari e 1206 impiegati
La Polizia amministrativa conta 315 effettivi
Sono presenti nella zona A  5000 militari USA e 5000 britannici.
Nella zona B sono presenti 5000 militari jugoslavi.
 
ELEZIONI
1948
1952
D.Cristiana
25
28
P.Com. TLT
13
6
P.Soc.Ven.Giulia 
4
5
M.Sociale
4
4
P.Socialista
*
1
P.Repubblicano
3
4
P.Liberale
1
3
Monarchici
3
1
Liste Slovene
1
1
Comunisti titini
1
1
F.te Indipendenza
4
5
Blocco Tr./Unione.Tr.
1
1
 
Territorio Libero di Trieste - Presidenza di Zona, Ufficio Elettorale

 


TRIEST UND SEINE RIVIERA


FREE TERRITORY OF TRIESTE

TERRITORIO LIBERO DI TRIESTE 

 

 

Click Picture to enlarge.The flag of the Free Territory of Trieste was flying 1945/1954 in the A zone ruled by the American-British forces and especially above the castle of Duino, which was the residence of the Military Cdt of the said zone, the General Officer Commanding BETFOR (British Element Trieste Force). The flag was lowered on the 5th of October 1954 when the Italians regained this part of the territory.

 The unique exemplar of the flag flying above the castle of Duino is kept now in the collections of the Imperial War Museum in London.

The AMG in Zone A was protected by two separate contingents of Allied servicemen, 5,000 Americans in TRUST (TRieste United States Troops) and 5,000 British in BETFOR (British Element Trieste FORce), each comprising crack infantry battalions complete with separate American and British command support units (Signals, Engineers, Military Police, etc) .Free Territory of Trieste (FTT), established, September 15, 1947, by Proclamation No. 1 of the Commander, British-United States Forces, in his capacity as Military Governor, BUSZ, in accordance with Section III of the Treaty of Peace with Italy, effective same day, which established FTT under United Nations (UN) auspices and provided for its provisional administration until such time as a governor, appointed by the UN Security Council, organized a permanent administration. FTT, consisting of the City and Port of Trieste and surrounding territory, was divided into Zone A (which included the City and Port), administered by AMG, BUSZ; and Zone B, administered by organizations of the Yugoslav Government. The provisional administration was continued, 1947-54, because of the UN Security Council's inability to agree upon the selection of a governor. By a Memorandum of Understanding between the Governments of Italy, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Yugoslavia, signed October 5, 1954, and subsequently accepted by the UN Security Council, the signatories agreed to an end of FTT provisional government and to the transfer, with a slight border adjustment, of Zone A territory to Italy and Zone B territory to Yugoslavia. By same memorandum, Italy agreed to maintain Trieste as a free port in accordance with terms of the Treaty of Peace with Italy. AMG, BUSZ abolished, October 26, 1954, with territory under its jurisdiction transferred to Italian Government.

 

On the 5th March 1946, Winston Churchill, in an address to Westminster College, Fulton, Missouri, made his famous "Sinews of War" speech including the following words:- "From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an Iron Curtain has come down over Europe".

He went on to say, "....... the future of Italy hangs in the balance". 

 

 

The Peace Treaty signed in Paris by the Italian government on 10 February 1947 officially sanctioned the new borderline and a division of the two zones within the Free Territory of Trieste, a new political-administrative unit which extended from Duino to Cittanova in Istria and which encompassed 330 000 inhabitants in 741 km2.

 

Under the terms of the 1947 Peace Treaty with Italy, a Governor for the Free Territory of Trieste was to be selected
and appointed by the United Nations Security Council. Until such appointment was made, the United States, Great Britain, and Yugoslavia were to administer and protect that Territory.

Quarterly reports were submitted by the Anglo-American Allied Military Government to the United Nations,
detailing the recovery and evolution of that part of the Territory in their "Zone A".

Provisions were made in the Treaty for the three nations to provide a garrison of 5,000 troops each in
support of the emerging government, to be withdrawn at a point after the Governor had taken control of
the Territory. Relations between the American and British governments on the one hand, and the Yugoslav
government and communist bloc on the other hand, were such that the area of the Territory was divided
into two zones. Zone A, administered by Allied Forces Trieste - the American and British contingents -
was primarily the metropolitan area, while Zone B, administered by the Yugoslavs, was primarily the hinterland.

The Governor was never appointed. Although several well-qualified candidates had been proposed,
the East and West Blocs could not come to agreement on political and strategic issues.

 

"Waiting for a Governor" , the FTT kept also divided into two zones.

The truth was that nobody knew how to sweep off Tito's Army from the B zone.

Zone A, was 222 km2 and  had 262.000 inh. (232.000 Italians, 25.000 Slavics, 4.000 Germans)

Was comprising the northern part, administered by the Allied Military Government (AMG) including the cities of Trieste  (211.000 Italians and 11.000 Slovenes) and Muggia (13.000 Italians and 500 Slovenes), and the  rural villages on the highlands (22.500 Slovenes and 2.000 Italians).

 

 

Zone B, was 529 km2 and 68.000 inh. (54.000 Italians, 14.000 Slavics)

Yet occupied by the Yugoslavian Army since May 1945. 

This zone continued to be administered by Yugoslavian Military Government (STT-VUJA) and was comprising the southern part of FTT, including  urban (overwhelming Italian) areas ( Capodistria, Isola, Pirano, Buie, Cittanova, Umago and others, with 43.000 Italians and 1.900 Slovenes) and the rural areas in the north-west of the Istrian Peninsular ( 12.000 Slovenes or Croats, and 9.000 Italians).

 

The G.M.A in the A Zone

 

The AMG in Zone A was protected by two separate contingents of Allied servicemen, 5,000 Americans in TRUST (TRieste United States Troops) and 5,000 British in BETFOR (British Element Trieste FORce), each comprising crack infantry battalions complete with separate American and British command support units (Signals, Engineers, Military Police, etc) 

 

 In 1954, the FTT was disbanded, Zone A being handed over to Italy and Zone B was incorporated into Yugoslavia. 

 

 

The STT-Vuja in the B Zone

 

 The political life of the years of the Allied Military Government was lived out according to the book in the A Zone, whereas the B Zone immediately suffered the Yugoslavian action of violent coercion against the Italian communities (80% of population of the zone) .Italians were  the overwhelming majority,  particularly along the  coast ( up to 99 %). 

Capodistria, Isola and Pirano were assigned to Slovenes, the southern areas with Buie, Umago and Cittanova to Croats.

 

The Yugoslavs, since the first day, made use of intimidation through nightly summary arrests, popular kangaroo court trials, and the fast elimination of Italian professionals and workers.

Yugoslavs immediately took over all shops and enterprises, while the majority of fishermen and farmers were forced to work for the Authority.

 

In April 1946 the Slavic language was introduced  in the schools and in the administration of the rural and coastal areas, where 97% of  the population were Italian and didn't normally know even a single word of Slavic language.

During the nights Slovene soldiers used to introduce themselves in the homes and frighten the Italian autochthonous.

Who had his job in the A zone of FTT was the first to be  invited to leave definitively the B zone.

 

 

1900 Capodistria (now Koper ), la via Callegarìa.

 

Later the  Slovenian and Croatian military authorities, in order to yugoslavize the towns began taking over "for administrative reasons" the  italian private homes.To  the displaced Italian families the Slovene Authority normally proposed a  rural house in an area where the Italian language was completely banned from schools and administration. People preferred to move to Italy, Australia and America.

In the area under the Slovenian military authority, i.e. in Capodistria, Isola and Pirano, the job was very good done, and practically every single Italian  inhabitant (27.000 of 30.000) had to move away . 

 

 The Yugoslavs tried by all means to obstacle the circulation of people and merchandises between the two zones of FTT, and simple workers spent  sometimes until 10 hours to cross the border between the two zone of the so-called "Free" territory, while the farmers and fishermen could no more sell their product in the great town of Trieste.

Even if  it was formally prohibited by the Peace's Treaty , the Yugoslavian Authority introduced in 1948 a new worthless currency : the Yugolira.

Yugoliras had practically no worth (the Economy in the B zone was practically reduced to zero), but at the border everyone was entering the yugoslav zone  (poor workers coming back to their homes in the B zone included) , had its money obligatory changed by Yug. military authorities with an absurd ratio Lira 1:1 Yugolira.

 

The Yugoslavs were inciting the little (but steadily increasing with new forced yugoslavian immigration) Slovene minorities hatred of Italians, all depicted as 'bourgeois Fascist Imperialists and collaborators'.

 

The majority of the Italians,  without job and without home, terrified by Slovenes , preferred to leave the B zone and emigrated to Italy, Canada or Australia.

 

Their houses were given to Slavic and Moslem peasants called from the South of Yugoslavia. 

Still today  historical centers are partially unoccupied.

 ( Central Pirano center had 7.000 inh. in 1945, but has only 700 now)

 

It was something which was ongoing not only in the Ftt but in  the whole of urban centers of the former Italian territories of the eastern part of Adriatic.

Since 1920 on the Dalmatian coast, and since 1944 in Istria, Fiume and Quarnero Islands.

Though the exodus was not as sudden as that of the Albanians in Kosovo, about 300,000 ethnic Italians fled socialist Yugoslavia in the decade following World War II. Violence, deportations, religious persecution and physical and psychological terrorizing made many ethnic Italians believe they had no choice but to leave their homes on the Istrian Peninsula.

 

Finally all Italian, including farmers and fishermen had to emigrate from the B zone.

In the following years up to 40.000 Italians, from workers and fishermen to professionals, were forced to mass migration or 'ethnic cleansing' from zone B in a forerunner of the horrors that have swept the Balkans since the collapse of the Yugoslav federation.

Only 2.700 (of 20.000) Italians remain in the area under slovenian control, and 8.500 (of 30.000) in the croate area.

 

So ended the complex events of the eastern border, which nonetheless left open wounds, with a human cost – the foibe and the exodus – which can not easily be erased.  The situation of the Italians who remained across the border was a cause for controversy, owing to the difficulties that the Italian communities face still today  in openly expressing their own cultural identity.